Women, especially those with heavy menstrual periods, are at risk of iron deficiency. Iron is essential for transporting oxygen in the blood. Symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, and pallor.
Calcium is crucial for bone health, and women are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Inadequate calcium intake may lead to brittle bones. Good sources of calcium include dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods.
Vitamin D is essential for bone health and immune function. Women with limited sun exposure or those who live in northern latitudes may be at risk. Vitamin D can be obtained from sunlight, fortified foods, and supplements.
B12 is important for red blood cell formation and neurological function. Deficiency can be more common in women who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, as B12 is primarily found in animal products.
Folate, or vitamin B9, is crucial for DNA synthesis and fetal development during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age should ensure adequate folate intake to prevent neural tube defects in newborns. Good sources include leafy greens and fortified grains.
Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, are important for heart and brain health. Women who don't consume fatty fish regularly may be at risk. Omega-3 supplements or plant-based sources like flaxseeds and walnuts can be beneficial.
Magnesium is involved in various bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, and bone health. Some women may not get enough magnesium from their diet, and deficiency can lead to muscle cramps, fatigue, and abnormal heart rhythms.
Iodine is essential for thyroid function, and deficiency can lead to thyroid-related issues. Pregnant women, in particular, should ensure sufficient iodine intake for the proper development of the baby's brain.